Luxembourg Citizenship

Citizenship In Luxembourg: All You Need To Know

Ever dreamed of swapping your current passport for one with a Grand Duchy stamp?

Ah, Luxembourg—a small country with big perks.

In this guide, we’ll unravel the mysteries of acquiring Luxembourg citizenship, so you can stop daydreaming and start planning.

Living In Luxembourg

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Luxembourg is a tiny country in Europe. Around 46% of the people living in Luxembourg are non-nationals. This makes the country a true cosmopolitan.

With so many people from different backgrounds already living in the country, expats moving to the country won’t find settling difficult at all.

Luxembourg shares its border with Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.

Luxembourg is known for its natural beauty and picturesque surroundings. Some people say, living in this country is almost like living in a fairytale of your own.

For getting a job in Luxembourg, knowing the English language is a great advantage. It is also the most in-demand skill in the job market.

Politics In Luxembourg

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Luxembourg is a democracy, headed by a constitutional monarchy. Elections are held every five years. Citizens of the country vote to elect the Prime Minister and the President.

The highest authority, however, is the Grand Duke. If, at all, he decides to dissolve the legislature, new elections must be held within three months.

The Grand Duke was part of the Medieval Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.

Anyone who is a citizen of Luxembourg and above the age of 18 can vote in the elections. Expats living here can also register themselves for being able to vote in the elections

Economy Of Luxembourg

Luxembourg has a fairly stable economy. Employment rates here are very stable too. In 2011, Luxembourg was considered to be the second richest country in the world.

The major industries contributing to the economy of Luxembourg are banking and finance, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, transportation, food processing, and tourism.

The cost of living in Luxembourg is relatively high, compared to India and also the USA. But the income tax is comparatively low.

The income tax levied on citizens living and working in Luxembourg is the lowest in all of Europe.

Buying Or Renting Property In Luxembourg

Property prices here are quite high. So is the demand.

For expats and foreigners, buying or renting property in Luxembourg is not very difficult. However, renting a property is considered simpler.

Most locals in this country prefer buying property rather than renting one.

If you are an expat moving to Luxembourg for the long term, it might make sense to buy property. If you’re moving there only for a couple of years, renting property is a better option.

For renting property, it is best to contact a real estate agent. You can also look for ‘house on rent’ ads in newspapers or online portals.

For expats and foreigners, it is especially advisable to hire a real estate agent when renting or buying a property because it is good to have someone who knows the local language to help you out.

Schools In Luxembourg

The quality of education in Luxembourg is considered to be one of the best in the world.

Education here is compulsory for children between the ages of 4 to 16. Most schools here are run by the Government and education is free. The education structure is divided into preschool, primary, and secondary.

Expats usually prefer sending their children to an international school. However, if you are planning to stay in Luxembourg for a longer duration, you should consider sending your child to a local school.

Weather In Luxembourg

The climate in Luxembourg is mild and temperate. Summers here are warm and mild. Winters are very cold and sometimes extreme.

The average temperature during summers is 17 degrees and during winters, it is normally 0 degrees. The average rainfall here is 75 cm.

Summers last from June to September. Winters are from November to March. Rainfall is usually from March to July. October usually experiences clear skies and moderate temperatures.

Benefits Of Luxembourg Citizenship

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As a member of the European Union, Luxembourg citizenship has several key benefits. EU citizenship gives you full EU rights, including freedom of movement, which includes the right to settle, work, study, and retire anywhere in the EU.

EU citizens can vote and run for office in national elections of the state in which they live. They can also vote in European elections and participate in other EU-wide decisions. 

If you decide to stay in Luxembourg, having citizenship allows you a greater say in the politics of the country, while also opening the door to additional job opportunities. 

The Luxembourg passport is extremely well-regarded, according to the Henley Passport Index. Ranked fourth (behind Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Germany), a Luxembourg passport gives you visa-free access to 190 countries. 

What’s more, as Luxembourg is a neutral and uncontroversial country, you’re unlikely to encounter problems crossing borders with your Luxembourg passport.

Luxembourg also allows dual citizenship, so you don’t have to give up your existing citizenship (and you can still acquire additional new ones in the future).

How To Get Luxembourg Citizenship?

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There are two main pathways to get Luxembourg citizenship voluntarily. They are citizens by naturalization and citizenship by option.  

Luxembourg Citizenship By Naturalization

Getting Luxembourg citizenship by naturalization is open to any third-country national who can fulfill the key requirements. These are as follows:

  • You’re aged over 18
  • You have legally resided in Luxembourg for at least five years (The year immediately before applying for citizenship must be uninterrupted)
  • You have a basic command of the Luxembourgish language (A2 level spoken, B1 comprehension)
  • You know Luxembourgish civics, having taken the “Vivre ensemble au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg” course, or passed the exam 
  • You haven’t made any false statements, concealed important information, or acted fraudulently during the naturalization process
  • You don’t have a criminal record with a custodial sentence of 12 months or more, or a suspended sentence of 24 months or more. 

What Documents Do You Need?

Once you meet all those requirements, the next step is to gather your application documents, consisting of the following:

  • Copy of your birth certificate
  • Copy of your passport
  • Completed biographical questionnaire, signed and dated
  • Criminal record certificates, from your country of citizenship, and any other countries where you have lived from the age of 18 in the 15 years before submitting your Luxembourg citizenship application
  • Certificate of passing the Luxembourgish language exam
  • A certificate confirming that you attended the Vivre ensemble au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg” course, or passed the exam

Then, you submit these documents to the civil registrar in Luxembourg. The Nationality Office of the Ministry of Justice will review the application. 

They may ask for additional documents if they decide the ones you’ve provided are insufficient or unsuitable in some way.

The Minister of Justice will grant (or reject) naturalization within eight months from the submission date. This timeline is typically followed closely. In many cases, it may be quicker than eight months. 

Luxembourg Citizenship By Option

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There are 10 cases in which you can apply for citizenship, although the criteria for application will differ.

Many require you to take a language proficiency test (spoken test to A2 level, listening test to B1 level) and the Living Together in Luxembourg course or test (rights of citizens, state and local institutions, and history of Luxembourg).

This decision tree can help you work out which case applies best to you.

1. Adults with a parent, grandparent, or adoptive parent who is or was Luxembourgish. Pretty straightforward but you’ll need evidence such as a birth certificate or passport.

2. Parents of a Luxembourg minor. You must have legally resided in Luxembourg for at least five years, with the final year of residence uninterrupted.

You must also know the Luxembourgish language and have passed the language test certificate, in addition to the Living Together in Luxembourg course or test.

3. If you marry a Luxembourgish national, you must have taken the Luxembourgish language test and the Living Together in Luxembourg course or test.

If you were not a resident of Luxembourg when you married, you can only apply for nationality after 3 years of marriage.

However, this waiting period does not apply if you are married to a Luxembourg national who is living abroad as a result of holding a post for a Luxembourg public authority or an international organization.

4. If you were born in Luxembourg and are over the age of 12 years.

If you have legally resided in Luxembourg for at least 5 consecutive years before applying and if you were born after 1 July 2013.

And that one of your non-Luxembourgish parents or adoptive parents resided legally in Luxembourg for at least 12 consecutive months before your birth.

5.Adults who have completed 7 years of schooling in Luxembourg in a public or private school where the Luxembourgish public curriculum is taught can apply for nationality.

This is provided they have lived in Luxembourg for the 12 consecutive months preceding the application.

6. Adults residing legally in Luxembourg for at least 20 years. You must take a Luxembourgish language course that is at least 24 hours in length, organized by either the INL or a provider certified by the minister of education.

7. Those of 12 years of age, who have completed the Contrat d’accueil et d’Intégration (Contract of Welcome and Integration).

You must have resided in Luxembourg for at least 5 years and know the Luxembourgish language evidenced by passing the language test certificate.

You’ll also need to take the Living Together in Luxembourg course or test. If you’ve participated in the citizenship course, you are exempt from taking the module on History and European Integration.

8. Adults who settled in Luxembourg before the age of 18. Provided you have resided in Luxembourg for at least five years and have taken the language proficiency test and the Living Together course or test.

However, if you have completed more than 7 years of education in Luxembourg (following the Luxembourgish curriculum), you can qualify for citizenship without taking a test.

9. Stateless adults or refugees who have lived in Luxembourg for at least five years. Again, you must take the language proficiency test and the Living Together in Luxembourg course or test.

You can count your period of application for recognition as a stateless person or refugee as part of your five years if you have resided in Luxembourg during this time.

10. Volunteer soldiers, who have completed at least one year of service, as certified by the Luxembourg army’s Chief of Staff, can apply for nationality.

Costs Of Applying For Luxembourg Citizenship

Whilst citizenship application is free of charge, you may have to pay for the preparation of certain documents such as copies of marital status or extracts of criminal records from police in Luxembourg or another country.

Does Luxembourg Have Dual Nationality?

Since January 1, 2009, it is possible to acquire Luxembourg nationality while retaining one’s original nationality. This is the principle of dual nationality.

Be careful, however, if Luxembourg accepts this principle of dual nationality, it is not the case in all countries.

It is possible that the country of origin of the applicant for Luxembourg nationality does not apply this principle. It is up to the candidate to check with the authorities of which he/she is already a national.

How Do You Get A Luxembourg Residence Permit?

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To get Luxembourg citizenship by naturalization or investment, you’ll need to live in Luxembourg for at least five years.

To do so as a non-EU citizen, you’ll need a residence permit to stay longer than the typical 90 days offered to tourists.

Luxembourg offers a wide range of ways to get residency, including employment, self-employment, and family reunification. 

If you have sufficient income to support yourself without working in Luxembourg (e.g. from remote work with a non-Luxembourg employer, or dividends from an online business based outside of Luxembourg), then there’s a specific residency route open to you. 

It’s called residency for private reasons. This is identified as the best pathway for remote workers and online business owners interested in starting their EU citizenship journey in Luxembourg.

Renouncing Luxembourgish Nationality

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People with Luxembourgish nationality may choose to renounce it. Losing Luxembourgish nationality has no retroactive effects. The acts and events occurring before the loss of Luxembourgish nationality remain valid.

The procedure to renounce Luxembourgish nationality is open to all persons with Luxembourgish nationality, provided that they are over 18. You can renounce it at any time.

The procedure to renounce Luxembourgish nationality is free of charge.

What Are The Pros And Cons Of Moving To Luxembourg?


Healthcare — Luxembourg has one of the best healthcare systems in Europe, covering around 95% of the resident population. The healthcare system is funded by the government and covers all citizens with basic medical coverage.

High salary— Luxembourg is one of the world’s highest-paying countries. The country has a government-mandated minimum wage that does not allow workers to be paid below the minimum rate of pay.

Job opportunities— Luxembourg offers great professional opportunities and great working conditions. The country has strict labor laws that benefit workers in many areas.

Education— The government in Luxembourg runs the majority of schools for free. Luxembourg boasts an excellent education system. Both public and private schools in Luxembourg have great standards and highly qualified educational staff.

Public transport— Luxembourg is known for having a dense and accessible public transport network free of charge for everybody, including tourists. The transport network also provides punctual connections to neighboring countries.

Free movement— Citizens of Luxembourg are entitled to be holders of one of the strongest passports in the world. The Luxembourgish passport ranks 9th and allows its holder to travel visa-free to 156 countries around the world.

Safety— A high level of safety and security is what makes Luxembourg a popular place among expats to live in. The country has a low crime rate and is considered one of the safest countries to live in Europe.


Living costs— Luxembourg is one of the most expensive countries in Europe, especially when it comes to renting. The rent prices in Luxembourg go from €1000 to up to €4000, depending on the location and the size of the rental.

Landlocked country— Since Luxembourg is landlocked by Belgium, Germany, and France, it lacks a coastline and easy access to the sea.

Weather— grey skies may be common in Luxembourg. This can make sunshine addicts feel dreary and depressed. Luxembourg also has cold and long winters, and there is no shortage of rainy days.

Most Popular Areas In Luxembourg For Expats

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Here are some of the most popular places for ex-pats to move to in Luxembourg:

  • Moselle Valley.
  • Echternach.
  • Mamer.
  • Larochette.
  • Esch-sur-Sûre.

Moselle Valley

The Moselle Valley lies between three countries on the Moselle River valley which gives the region a breathtaking view creating a U-shaped natural landscape.

One of the best things about moving to Moselle Valley is that you will be surrounded by nature and green spaces everywhere you go.

Moselle Valley is a quiet, peaceful, romantic place famous for its vineyards with a variety of grapes. It is the perfect place for people who enjoy hiking, cycling, walking, or participating in water activities.

The Moselle is a rural idyll that has developed the tourism industry in Luxembourg and welcomes thousands of tourists from all over the world.


Echternach is located in eastern Luxembourg and is one of the oldest cities in the country. The city is known for its architecture, with the Basilica of St. Willibrord and the Church of St. Peter and Paul being some of the best historic architectural examples.

Echternach is a quiet city with 5000 inhabitants. The town is a hidden gem and offers many great things that you can do, such as hiking, dancing at Dancing Procession, biking, or having a picnic in one of many beautiful parks.

Echternach is also affordable compared to other parts of the country, making it a great place for expats to live in.


In the southwestern part of Luxembourg, you can find Mamer, a beautiful commune and town. Mamer is located on the river Mamer and has a population of 10,000 inhabitants, with over 40% of the population being expats.

The town is famous for many things, such as horse trails, snorkeling, mosques, parks, nature reserves, and mountains, among others.

Mamer has a friendly community with a lively social life which is one of the reasons why expats move there permanently.

Mamer also has a convenient location near the capital and is more affordable than most cities in Luxembourg.


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Larochette is a small commune and town in central Luxembourg with fascinating nature.

Larochette is characterized by its narrow rocky valley and is dominated by two old castles that give the town an alluring view. Castles in Larochette serve as a tourist attraction for thousands of people from all over the world.

The town is also surrounded by green spaces, so if you are a nature lover, you will love living in Larochette.

If you decide to move to Larochette, you will enjoy a quiet and relaxing life. You will also feel safe, as the crime level in Larochette is low.


Similar to the Larochette, you can move to Esch-sur-Sûre to experience living in a place with beautiful old buildings and surrounded by nature.

Esch-sur-Sûre is a commune and town in the north-western part of Luxembourg famous for its architectural charms and large shopping malls.

Although Esch-sur-Sûre has a small population, it is packed with tourists, especially during the summer months. The town has many popular attractions, with some of the most famous being Rockhal, Escher Tier Park, and The Minett Park Fond-de-Gras.

You will see a lot of horses around the town that give Esch-sur-Sûre a picturesque view. So if you enjoy horseback riding, you can take a ride and enjoy the breathtaking panoramic views of the surrounding hills


So, you’ve journeyed through the labyrinth of Luxembourg citizenship, and look at you—still standing!

Remember, the path to citizenship is less about paperwork and more about embracing a new cultural tapestry.

Passport Awaits!

But wait! There’s lot more that you might be interested in to follow:

  • Dual Citizenship In Luxembourg
  • Permanent Residence In Luxembourg
  • Temporary Residence In Luxembourg

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